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Vista Veterinary Specialists

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Frequently Asked Questions

Below you will find some frequently asked questions regarding pet emergencies and your pet’s hospital stay.

Some emergencies are obvious, whereas others can be more subtle and leave owners wondering what the appropriate course of action is. Many owners may ask themselves, “Am I overreacting?” or “Can it wait until my regular vet is able to see me?” Without examining your pet, it can be very difficult to ascertain the severity of their illness or injury. Because delayed treatment can impact the overall success and cost of care, we recommend that you seek early evaluation for any change in your pet’s condition.

Whether you are seeking treatment on your own or your primary veterinarian has referred you here for more urgent or complex care than they can offer, our team is ready to assist you and your pet 24 hours a day.

Common Emergencies

Abdominal Pain

Abdominal pain can be secondary to many different causes including, but not limited to, vomiting, diarrhea, infectious disease (parasites, viral and bacteria), eating foreign objects which can obstruct the gastrointestinal tract, and cancer. Animals with abdominal pain may be reluctant to participate in regular daily activities, walk with a hunched posture, or tremor or wince when the abdomen is touched. Abdominal pain is always a good reason for emergency evaluation.

Trauma (Hard Fall, Hit by Car)

Traumatic injuries are often caused by falls, bite wounds, lacerations and being struck by a car. In many patients the degree of trauma is not readily apparent and the severity of injury can progress rapidly or over time (internal bleeding, lung puncture, severe trauma or bruising under the skin, or infection). Medical evaluation is vitally important in determining the extent of trauma and starting a treatment plan to prevent or minimize complications following the injury. Because the true extent of injury may be unclear, it is important to use extreme caution when approaching or handling an injured animal and to seek veterinary attention as soon as possible.

Respiratory Changes

Breathing is obviously a vital function of the body. Difficulty breathing can be associated with many different conditions including asthma, heart disease, infections and pneumonia, as well as cancer. If your pet is breathing with more effort or more rapidly than usual, please call for advice or have your pet evaluated by a veterinarian immediately.


Seizures stem from abnormal brain activity. Seizures can be associated with toxins, metabolic disorders such as liver disease or low blood sugar, high blood pressure, strokes and aneurysms, cancer as well as conditions our pets can be born with, such as epilepsy. Small seizures can be seen as abnormal behaviors while large seizures can be debilitating causing loss of consciousness, balance and result in thrashing. Seizures can be extremely dangerous, even life threatening. If your pet experiences a seizure, or if you are concerned for your pet, please have your pet evaluated by a veterinarian as soon as possible.


Heat induced injury (overheating or heatstroke, not burns) is common in the summer months. Common causes can include leaving your pet in a hot car or yard without appropriate cooling or even exercise during the warmer hours of the day – always avoid keeping your pet in very warm or hot places and be sure to provide access to water and shade. Patients with heat exhaustion can show signs of muscle cramping, weakness, tremors and seizures, vomiting or diarrhea and difficulty breathing. As the body’s temperature rises, these signs will worsen and may become fatal. If you are concerned your pet has been overheated, seek immediate veterinary help. Cooling measures, which include wetting your animal down with water and applying a fan, can be instituted to help slow or minimize the effects of heat induced injury while en route to a veterinarian.


Toxins are everywhere in the environment. Common toxins are household plants (such as lilies and certain palm trees), mushrooms, vehicle fluids, chemicals, medications, some foods and common poisons. Please follow this link for a more comprehensive list of common toxins. Toxicities are treated with decontamination (induction of vomiting – this needs to be done as soon as possible after ingestion, followed by administration of counteracting medications and activated charcoal to continue to bind any remaining toxin in the intestinal tract). Treatment for toxicities should be tailored to the specific toxin. If your pet has been exposed to a substance you feel may be toxic, please bring the packaging associated with the substance for identification to allow quick and effective treatment. A great resource is the Pet Poison Helpline.

Allergic Reactions

Allergic reactions can have many different causes. Some more common causes include insect bites and stings, inhaled allergens, foods, medications, substances that have come in contact with the skin, vaccines and chemicals. Allergic reactions can manifest as facial swelling, hives, vomiting and diarrhea, and respiratory difficulties. Allergic responses can also progress to anaphylactic reactions which are life threatening. If you feel your pet is having an allergic reaction, immediate assessment by a veterinarian is recommended.

Bite Wounds

Animal bites and wounds are common occurrences as our pets interact with their world at home and beyond. Depending on the extent of trauma, location of the injury (involvement of blood vessels and internal organs) and the degree of contamination of the wound, prognosis can vary. It is important to keep in mind that small puncture wounds, which often seem minor, can hide much more extensive damage to underlying tissues. If addressed in a timely and aggressive fashion, pets will almost invariably recover well. When treating bite wounds, consideration must also be given to a pet’s vaccine status as some infectious diseases including rabies and FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) can be transmitted via bites. If a bite or attack has occurred, please seek evaluation as soon as possible.

Snake Bites

Snake bite envenomation is a very serious condition. Snake venom has many different components that can affect the body in several ways. Most commonly, pets will have profound swelling and pain at the site of the bite. Later effects can involve bleeding tendencies, death of tissues affected by the bite, vomiting, diarrhea, and heart and brain abnormalities. In severe cases snake bites can be fatal. If your pet has been bitten by a snake, do not try to extract the poison. The only truly effective treatment for a snake bite is administration of antivenin- an antidote that neutralizes the venom preventing injury to the body. Vista Veterinary Specialists has a regular stock of antivenin at all times.

Labor & Delivery

While delivery of new puppies and kittens sounds wonderful, complications can arise during labor and birth. Once active labor (visible abdominal contraction) begins, a puppy or kitten should be produced approximately every 30 minutes. If active pushing is not successful at producing a newborn within 1-2 hours, this is considered an abnormal delivery (dystocia) and veterinary evaluation should be sought. On occasion simple repositioning of the newborn can be successful in resolving the complication, but sometimes surgery (a cesarean section) is needed to remove the newborns. Prolonged dystocia can be fatal to the mother and newborns. Seek veterinary care or call for advice if you have concerns regarding your pregnant animal.

Urinary Changes

Abnormal urination can be characterized by an inability to urinate, painful urination or urinating more frequently. Causes of abnormal urination can arise from infection, stones and crystals, inflammation, cancer and rarely foreign bodies (such as plant material or foxtails). Changes in urination behaviors can be a sign of underlying disease such as diabetes, kidney, liver or adrenal disease. Changes in urination can progress to life threatening situations. If concerned about your pet’s urinary behaviors, please call for advice or seek veterinary care as soon as possible.

Cardiac Emergencies

Cardiac emergencies can be vague in their presentation but more common signs include weakness or sudden collapse, coughing, bluish gums or tongue, and shortness of breath. Some of these situations can be life threatening; therefore immediate evaluation is warranted.

Eye Emergencies

The eye is a very sensitive organ with the unique function of providing vision. Common symptoms that may indicate an issue with your pet’s eyes include redness, discharge or squinting (indicating pain). This may be caused by trauma, foreign material in the eye, cataracts, glaucoma, immune mediated diseases and infections. Due to the eye’s important job of providing sight, it is very important to seek immediate evaluation and treatment for eye problems.

Vomiting and/or Diarrhea

Vomiting and diarrhea are very common reasons for dogs and cats to visit the emergency room and their causes are often varied with age and vaccination status. Young dogs can develop vomiting and/or diarrhea from eating objects or foods that they shouldn’t or as a result of various infections (parasite, viral or bacterial). While older dogs can be affected by the same diseases as younger dogs, vomiting and diarrhea can also be a sign of other conditions such as inflammatory bowel diseases, cancer or organ failure. While vomiting and diarrhea may seem fairly harmless, it is both uncomfortable and can lead to dangerous levels of dehydration if left untreated.

For Pets Owners

Are you open 24-hours a day?

Yes. Our emergency department is open 24-hours a day year round, including holidays. Specialty appointments are by appointment Monday – Friday. Your veterinary can submit a referral on your behalf for one of our specialties.

What are the COVID-19 protocols at Vista?

The health and safety of our mutual clients and our teams is always a top priority for Ethos Veterinary Health. In light of the developments around the new coronavirus, COVID-19, we are sharing the guidelines below with our clients, and we would like to make you aware. If you have any questions or concerns, please reach out to your local Ethos hospital.

Guidelines in light of COVID-19

At Ethos, the health and safety of our clients and team members is always a top priority. To limit the spread of the new coronavirus, please following these guidelines when visiting our hospitals. Thank you for your understanding and cooperation.


  • Wash your hands with soap and water prior to visiting our hospital.

  • Use provided hand sanitizer upon arriving and leaving.

  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.

  • Cover your mouth and nose if you cough or sneeze, using a tissue or the inside of your elbow.

  • Keep a safe social distance (6 feet) between yourself and others when possible.

  • Avoid shaking hands.

If you are experiencing symptoms of coronavirus disease, i.e. have fever, cough, or shortness of breath, it is critical that you to contact us to discuss your appointment or emergency visit, so that we can discuss how to best proceed. Upon speaking, we may ask you to find someone else to bring your pet to our hospital to receive care.

For the Latest Information on COVID-19 You can always find our latest information about our response to COVID-19 on our blog. We will continue to provide updates as the situation evolves. Please check back for updates.

For more information on COVID-19, visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

We are open for emergencies 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. No appointment is necessary for emergency cases, though it may be helpful to call ahead. As with human hospitals, we triage all emergency cases and treat the most critical patients first. Specialty service appointments are available Monday – Saturday and can be scheduled with one of our client service representatives by calling (916) 231-4445.

Visiting Vista – What to expect

Can Vista be my primary veterinarian?

No, our practice only provides specialty and emergency services. Vista Veterinary Specialists works directly with your family veterinarian to coordinate the most comprehensive level of care for your pet.

Do I need a referral to see a specialist?

We always welcome pet owners seeking advanced medical care for their pet, but we do encourage you to speak with your family veterinarian. Whether a brief outpatient visit or an extended hospital stay, we will keep your family veterinarian updated on your pet’s condition and progress. Communication between all parties is the best recipe for success.

What is a board certified specialist?

A board certified specialist is an individual with a DVM/VMD and the letters DACV… plus the initials of the area of their study, following their name. To receive board certification they must complete all of the following educational requirements:

  • Receive an undergraduate degree.

  • Complete four years of veterinary school.

  • Receive advanced training during a one-year internship program.

  • Participate in a three-year residency program completing specific training and caseload requirements under the supervision of other board-certified individuals.

  • Conduct research and publish in scientific journals.

Following this training, candidates must submit a credentials application then pass a rigorous examination evaluating knowledge and training in the specific area of specialization.

Once all credentials have been met, and the individual passes the exam, the status of board-certified specialist is granted.

What is the cost of a specialty visit?

Consultation fees vary by specialty. During the consult one of our team of specialists will take a thorough history, examine your pet, identify your goals and expectations, and prepare an estimate for the expected scope and cost of diagnostics and/or treatment. Depending on the complexity of the testing or procedure, your pet may need to remain us with for several hours and on some occasions, several days. Once approved, we ask that you leave a deposit equal to the low end of the estimate. If your pet is hospitalized, we will contact you regularly to keep you apprised of your pet’s progress as well as any changes to the treatment plan and associated costs.

What is the cost of an emergency visit?

We start with the emergency exam charge. Once the veterinarian on duty examines your pet, we will generate an estimate for the expected scope and cost of diagnostics and/or treatment. Once approved, we ask that you leave a deposit equal to the high end of the estimate. If your pet is hospitalized, we will contact you regularly to keep you apprised of your pet’s progress as well as any changes to the treatment plan and associated costs.

What forms of payment do you accept?

We accept cash, Visa, MasterCard, Discover, American Express, check and CareCredit.

Do you offer payment plans?

We offer CareCredit, a medical credit card offering zero and low-interest payment options. Please visit CareCredit or speak with one of our client service representatives to learn more about or apply for their extended payment options.